Economics in Health Care

Economics theory provides rules for dealing with competition, making sense of costs, & understanding the real value of goods & services. Economics in health care is an derivative of society’s health influenced by the accessibility, affordability, quality, availability, & utilization of health amenities.

Demand for health care services determines the prevalence & incidence of disease presence within the population. Environmental crisis has polluted air, land, & water, & triggered increase in rate of infectious diseases, via vector communication. HIV has been prime focus for need for medical care. Life-style diseases, genetically predisposed constitutional diseases, & accidents has estimated high demand for medical care. However, these demands are elastic to price distribution & income levels of individuals. Individuals buy those health care services, which will give maximum satisfaction from their limited housekeeping, or income allowance. Opportunity costs for medical care compensates with other basic needs of life, postpone the treatments, or finding alternative resources.

Health care providers of government sectors restraint from providing tertiary medical care, because of lack of monetary support, & large scale of population count. Education, family planning, poverty, nutritional status (especially in children & pregnant females), Immunization programmmes, sanitation & environmental hygiene has accounted primary concern for government authorities. The private stake-holders has played crucial role in introducing high-technology & super-specialty treatments, & assured quality care with early diagnosis & increase in quality life, but probably with price inflation. Managed care organization & medical insurance policy has given relief to certain extent, however with high premium rate, & exclusive terms & conditions of the contract, has failed to cover large scale of population.

Market economic reports, increase in GDP in both developed & developing countries consequentially escalates the medical care cost. Increasing competition among private stake-holders in health care industry focus on profitability, & also promoted medical tourism generating high revenue source, which has adversely affected ethical standards in native countries.

Human Health

Constant Climatic changes pose a great challenge to Human Health. Even though toxins and disease pathogens are a threat to health, Climate change may cause health effects that are potentially harmful. These threats include impacts from heat waves, air pollution that causes ailments, severe storms and many infectious diseases.

Assessing the glaring effects of climate change to human health should realistically include setting up a capacity to manage the unpredictable climate conditions. Due to the health risks occasioned by the climatic change, there is needed to set up and run a vibrant public health infrastructure.

Since we live in a global village, increased of risks associated with diseases emanating from other countries should be considered. Climate change has made poor countries suffer greatly. Due to global trade that requires a lot of travelling between different countries, diseases are bound to flare-up in any part of the world. Extreme climatic conditions such as severe draught and storms also undermine the public health infrastructure that is in place.

It is worthy noting that;

• There has been a significant increase recorded in illness and death that has been caused by extreme heat waves. There is also death caused by extreme cold weather.

• It will be difficult to protect human health because set air quality standards won’t be met due to Warming of the environment.

• Weather conditions that are extreme have caused physical and psychological problems to mankind. This has led to stress and depression related ailments.

• There is a marked increase in diseases that are transmitted by water, food and insects.

• Due to rising carbon dioxide concentration and temperatures, production of pollen is increased hence a number of plants with high rate of allergenic pollen have a prolonged pollen season. This presents a health risk to human beings.

Environmental contamination and emergence of infectious diseases has caused public health concerns world wide. Health threats have also affected the relationship between human beings with physical, biological and chemical conditions of our natural environments.

Over population has exerted pressure on health facilities and made it extremely difficult to maintain a sustainable public health policy and practice. Zoonotic and vector- borne ailments, airborne contaminants, Water contaminants and bio – accumulative contamination in the food chain have caused public health threats all over the world and require concerted efforts to develop solutions that are scientifically viable.

There is therefore need to understand as a prerequisite the ecological and environmental health so as to protect public health. Our scientists play an important and significant role in ensuring that our country has relevant scientific information and knowledge that will help us understand diseases that are a constant threat to human health and come up with preventive measures.

Taking Care of Dog Health Concerns Naturally Without Side Effects

Any pet owner is well aware of all the issues that having a companion can cause. One of the most common problems is the regular worry over dog health concerns. After all, when you have a pet, the responsibility for its well-being also rests on you. A much loved companion is another member of your family, and any illness or health problems they face becomes a matter of concern for the whole family. Since no one likes to see their furry friend suffer, keeping up with dog health issues, and ways to deal with them, is an important part of being a pet owner.

Probably the best known of dog health concerns is rabies. Caused by a virus, rabies is a major concern to public health, as well as to the well being of precious pets, especially in countries in the third world, or the Middle East. It is transmitted through bites, and is fatal unless the dog has been vaccinated. The disease causes their brain to malfunction, and the behavior of the dog changes abruptly. Behavior changes are followed by paralysis of the hind legs, and throat muscles, followed by death caused due to an increasing difficulty in breathing.

Canine distemper is another major item on the list of dog health issues, and although highly contagious, it is not transmitted to humans, and is treatable. Dog health concerns can range from a simple allergy, through cough, cold, and infections, to rabies. Dogs are also susceptible to heart diseases, hepatitis, kidney diseases, and epilepsy. While some diseases and health problems are common to your dog and you, some are unique illnesses that only your companion suffers from.

Age, and genetics, related diseases like diabetes, cancer, and arthritis are the same in you and your friend, and many of the pathogens that make your life a living hell cause problems for your pet too. Viral and bacterial diseases affecting dogs are many and varied, as are vector borne diseases like those spread by ticks, and fungal infections like mange. Hereditary, genetic and geriatric diseases and dog health concerns can also take up a lot of mental space for a pet owner, especially if your canine companion is of a certain age and getting older.

Purebreds are more prone to certain genetic and orthopedic diseases, and some breeds are more susceptible to growths, tumors, and cancers. Older dogs are also a lot more likely to develop heart disease, along with many other age related disorders. Knowing and keeping abreast of all the relevant dog health concern for the particular breed and age group of your companion is a major part of being a pet owner. Managing health issues is as important for your canine friend as it is for you or your family.

Natural and holistic treatment and maintenance regimens like homeopathy can help alleviate dog health concerns by keeping your pet achieve optimal health. In case of disease, daily supplements can help strengthen and bolster the natural biological systems of your pet, giving them the extra nutrients to build immunity and fight health-related problems.

How Pests Can Affect Your Health

Pest and rodents may have some harmful effects upon your quality of life and your family’s health. It is essential to understand the dangers stemming from these kinds infestations. Do you know that many of the most common pest in homes are cockroaches, rodents and ants? It’s unsettling to think about us sharing our homes with these pests with the serious threats they pose. Below is a more in depth summary of the health risks affiliated with particular pests.

Cockroaches
The National institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) reports that one-in-five children in the United States have severe sensitivities to cockroach allergens, which raise the seriousness of asthma symptoms. These allergens are most commonly introduced in homes through cockroach saliva, droppings along with decomposing bodies of pests. Cockroaches can carry bacteria such as E coli and salmonella on their bodies, which may contaminate food, cooking equipment and food surfaces.

Mosquitoes
Together with the increased prevalence of West Nile Virus during the summer time months, mosquitoes continue to be, not only a summer nuisance pest and also, an important health threat. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), West Nile Virus infections have appeared all over the United States recently, which makes avoiding mosquito nesting/breeding sites and eliminating standing water around or in your house a lot more important to the security of public health. Additionally, to the possibility of West Nile Virus, mosquitoes can cause itchy, unsightly marks together with severe allergic reactions in people.

Ants
Ants are social insects. Therefore, spotting one ant unfortunately signifies there are a lot more to follow. Ants are not simply unsightly- they can also be harmful contaminates to food. The existence of ants and also the chance of food contamination from their presence is a problem that needs to be addressed when thinking about your health and the health of your family.

Fire Ants
Fire ants not only affect your outdoor enjoyment, they are to blame for countless hospital visits every year. Controlling these voracious pests takes additional care and expertise. If you have fire ants present on your property, you can trust a good pest control company to provide a solution designed to safeguard your family and pets.

Stinging Insects (yellow Jackets, Wasps, Hornets & More)
Stinging insects send more than 500,000 people to the hospital each year. These pests are aggressive in nature and quite often sting as a way to protect their colonies or larvae from individuals who try to remedy an infestation themselves. This aggressiveness, put together with being disturbed, often means that these pests usually tend to sting repeatedly, which increases the potential for greater skin irritation or serious allergic reaction. A Pest Control Professional provides a level of expertise and expertise in technology which will best rid these stinging insects and stop future infestations.

Ticks
Lyme disease has emerged lately as a major health risk to human beings. Transmitted by ticks, typically between May and October, Lyme disease is basically found in the Northwestern, upper mid-western states of the U.S. However, there’s been a rise in the diagnosed cases of Lyme diseases in the South. It is critical to be vigilant of ticks, notably if you have been in wooded areas. Signs of Lyme disease will include a “bull’s eye” rash about the bite, flu-like symptoms and extreme fatigue.

Fleas
Fleas aren’t just a problem for man’s best friend. These pests, which commonly show up in warmer months, feast upon the blood from a warm-blooded body. Typically biting human beings, fleas can cause itchy, unsightly marks and severe allergic reactions. Fleas are likely to travel with mammals on the move, which often can include not only you and your pet and also rodents. Should you have a rodent problem in your residence, fleas may soon follow. If you think a flea infestation, contact a Pest Control company to rid your home of fleas and prevent future infestations.

Rodents
Rodents can enter a house through any kind of opening or crack. It is very important inspect for rodent droppings, particularly in undisturbed areas such as pantries, under baseboards, in attics and along walls. Rodent droppings frequently cause allergic reactions in human beings but can also cause disease, including the potentially deadly Hantavirus. More often, though, rodents serve as vectors, carrying bacteria, such as salmonella, on their bodies and contaminating food sources, kitchen surfaces and equipment. A Pest Control trained professional can provide the expertise and understanding of rodent biology to best protect your health and rid your home of any rodent infestation.